Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The current gold standard therapy for pancreas transplantation has limitations because of the long list of waiting patients and the limited supply of donor pancreas. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a relatively new potential therapy in various fields, have already made their mark in the young field of regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that the implantation of MSCs decreases glucose levels through paracrine influences rather than through direct transdifferentiation into insulin-producing cells. Therefore, these cells may use pro-angiogenic and immunomodulatory effects to control diabetes following the cotransplantation with pancreatic islets. In this review, we present and discuss new approaches of using MSCs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1.