Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell infusion and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial

Background aims

The use of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) has achieved great outcomes in clinical practice. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous BM-MNC infusion and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus.


This single-center, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial with a factorial design included two phases. The patients received standard medical therapy in the run-in phase; in the treatment phase, patients with glycated hemoglobin of 7.5–9.5% were randomly assigned into four groups and underwent BM-MNC infusion along with HOT (BM-MNC+HOT group), BM-MNC infusion (BM-MNC group), HOT (HOT group) and standard medical therapy (control group), respectively. The area under the curve of C-peptide was recorded as a primary end point. Our research is registered at (NCT00767260).


A total of 80 patients completed the follow-up. At 12 months after treatment, the area under the curve of C-peptide (ng/mL per 180 min) of the BM-MNC+HOT group and the BM-MNC group were significantly improved (34.0% and 43.8% from the baseline, respectively). The changes were both significant compared with that in the control group, but no remarkable change was observed in the HOT group. Treatment-related adverse events were mild, including transient abdominal pain (n = 5) and punctual hemorrhage (n = 3).