Phosphorylation is an indispensable process for energy and signal transduction in biological systems. AlCl3 at 10 nM to 10 microM range activated in-vitro [gamma-32P]ATP phosphorylation of the brain (tau) tau protein in both normal human or E. coli expressed tau forms; in the presence of the kinases P34, PKP, and PKC. However, higher concentrations of ALCl3 inhibited the tau phosphorylation with P34, PKP, and PKC to a maximum at 1 mM level. AlCl3 at 100 microM to 500 microM range induced non-enzymatic phosphorylation of tau with gamma-ATP, gamma-GTP, and alpha-GTP. AlCl3 activated histone phosphorylation by P34 in a similar pattern. The hyperphosphorylation of tau by Al3+ was accompanied by molecular shift and mobility retardation in SDS-PAGE. This may demonstrate the mechanism of the longterm neurological effect of Al3+ in human brain leading to the formation of the neurofibrillary tangles related to Alzheimer’s disease.
Aluminum interaction with human brain tau protein phosphorylation by various kinases.
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