Autologous AD-MSC [adipose-derived MSC (mesenchymal stem cell)] therapy involves harvesting fat from the patient by isolating the stem and regenerative cells and administering the cells back to the patient. This study evaluated the production of canine AD-MSCs and their possible application in cellular therapy for dogs. To assess whether cellular therapy can replace drug therapy, the clinical effect of a single intra-articular injection of AD-MSCs was evaluated on 4 dogs with lameness associated with OA (osteoarthritis) of the humeroradial joints. MSCs were readily isolated from adult dog adipose tissue, and their ability to form colony and differentiate into various phenotypes was confirmed. AD-MSCs expressed OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 at the mRNA level, pluripotency markers usually ascribed to embryonic stem cells. The results suggest the stemness of the cells isolated from canine fat, and good quality control made them available for both experimental and clinical use. Follow-up studies to evaluate the effects of AD-MSC therapy showed that OA of the elbow joints improved with time, indicating significant potential for clinical use in the treatment of lameness, particularly when administered before the injury becomes severe.