Periodontal infection profiles in type 1 diabetes

Objectives: We investigated the levels of subgingival plaque bacteria and serum IgG responses in patients with type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic controls of comparable periodontal status.
Material and Methods: Fifty type 1 diabetes patients (mean duration 20.3 years, range 6–41) were age-and gender-matched with 50 non-diabetic individuals with similar levels of periodontal disease. Full-mouth clinical periodontal status was recorded, and eight plaque samples/person were collected and analysed by checkerboard hybridization with respect to 12 species. Homologous serum IgG titres were assessed by checkerboard immunoblotting. In a sub-sample of pairs, serum cytokines and selected markers of cardiovascular risk were assessed using multiplex technology.
Results: Among the investigated species, only levels of Eubacterium nodatum were found to be higher in diabetic patients, while none of the IgG titres differed between the groups, both before and after adjustments for microbial load. Patients with diabetes had significantly higher serum levels of soluble E-selectin (p=0.04), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1; p=0.0008), adiponectin (p=0.01) and lower levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; p=0.02).
Conclusions: After controlling for the severity of periodontal disease, patients with type 1 diabetes and non-diabetic controls showed comparable subgingival infection patterns and serum antibody responses.