Proliferation therapy, or "prolotherapy," is also known as regenerative injection therapy (RIT). Since the 1930s, the technique has been used to stabilize injured joints and to relieve joint pain. This article reviews the history and scientific literature regarding prolotherapy and describes the application of the technique to treat injured or unstable temporomandibular joints (TMJ). Alternative medicaments and the likely mechanisms of action are discussed.
A brief preliminary summary of a retrospective clinical study of the efficacy of prolotherapy is included. The study shows that prolotherapy can be an effective therapeutic modality that reduces TMJ pain and joint noise in a majority of patients who have reached a plateau with use of an intraoral appliance, physical therapy, and home care.