Nausea and vomiting are symptoms associated with a wide variety of diseases and particular life conditions, such as pregnancy. The symptoms may occur in acute form or chronically depending on the underlying pathogenesis. In some cases, nausea and vomiting are directly triggered by food, e.g. in patients suffering from food allergy or food intolerances. In other cases, food is not the primary cause but dietetic manipulations may still contribute to the management of the nausea and vomiting. Therefore, food plays an important pathophysiological and therapeutic role in nausea and vomiting. In the present article, we describe the most relevant nutrient triggers for nausea and vomiting, discuss food allergy and intolerance as cause of nausea and vomiting, propose a clinical classification of nausea and vomiting, and present in detail dietetic and other therapeutic strategies of relevance for the management of nausea and vomiting.